Following the short summary is a list of studies and commentaries on Emotionally Focused Therapy research.
Short Summary of EFT Research
Question: Does EFT conform to any Gold€ť standard in terms of research validation and the
standards set out for psychotherapy?
In terms of the gold standard set out by bodies such as APA for psychotherapy research, EFT epitomizes the very highest level set out by this standard. Over the last 25 years, the EFT research program has systematically covered all the factors set out in optimal models of psychotherapy research. The meta-analysis (Johnson et al, 1999) of the four most rigorous outcome studies conducted before the year 2000, showed a larger effect size (1.3) than any other couple intervention has achieved to date. Studies consistently show excellent follow-up results, and some studies show that significant progress continues after therapy. EFT has a body of process research showing that change does indeed occur in the way that the theory suggests. This level of linkage between in-session process and rigorous outcome measurement is unusual in the field of psychotherapy. EFT is the only model of couple intervention that uses a systematic empirically validated theory of adult bonding as the basis for understanding and alleviating relationship problems. The generalizability of EFT across different kinds of clients and couples facing co-morbidities such as depression and PTSD has been examined and results are consistently positive. Outcome and process research addressing key relationship factors, such as the forgiveness of injuries, has also been conducted with positive results. EFT studies are generally rigorous and published in the best peer reviewed journals. In brief, EFT researchers can show that, as set out in the Johnson 2004 seminal text, Creating Connection: The Practice of Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy, EFT works very well, results last, we know HOW it works so we can train therapists to intervene efficiently and we know it
works across different populations and problems. It also links congruently to other bodies of research such as those examining the nature of relationship distress and adult attachment processes. Recent research involves outcome studies of couples facing trauma (the Dalton and MacIntosh studies, and a study on EFT effects on attachment security with an FMRI component.) The FMRI component shows that EFT changes the way contact with a partner mediates the effect of threat on the brain. There is an outcome study in progress of the new educational program based on
EFT (Hold Me TightÂ® Program: Conversations for Connection). A pilot study has also just been completed at the VA in Baltimore on EFT with veteran couples dealing with PTSD. Completed and ongoing EFT research consistently supports the efficacy of the Emotionally Focused Therapy model. Rev. 6 â€“ January 2013
1. Greenman, P.S., & Johnson, S.M. (2012). United We Stand: Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for Couples in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, Vol.68(5), 561-569.
2. Denton, W.H., Wittenborn, A.K., & Golden, R.N. (2012) Augmenting antidepressant medication treatment of depressed women with emotionally focused therapy for couples: A randomized pilot study. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Vol.38, Supplement s1, 23-38.
3. Naaman, S., & Johnson, S. M., & Radwan, K. (In review) Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of emotionally focused therapy on psychological adjustment of couples facing early breast cancer. Psychiatry: Biological and Interpersonal Processes.
4. Dalton, J., Greeman, P., Classen, C., & Johnson, S. M. (In review) Nurturing Connections in the Aftermath of Childhood Trauma: A randomized controlled trial of Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy (EFT) for Female Survivors of Childhood Abuse. Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice.
5. Greenman, P.S., Faller, G., & Johnson, S.M. (2011). Finding the words: Working with men in Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples. In D.S. Shepard & M. Harway (Eds.), Engaging men in couples therapy (pp. 91-116). New York: Routledge.
6. McLean, L.M., Walton, T., Rodin, G., Esplen, M.J., & Jones, J.M. (2011) A couple-based intervention for patients and caregivers facing end-stage cancer: outcomes of a randomized controlled trial. Article first published online: Sept.14, 2011 in Psycho-Oncology.
7. Halchuk, R., Makinen, J. & Johnson, S. M. (2010) Resolving Attachment Injuries in Couples using Emotionally Focused Therapy: A 3 year follow-up. Journal of Couple and Relationship Therapy, 9, 31-47.
8. Honarparvaran, N., Tabrizy, M., & Navabinejad, Sh. (2010) The efficacy of emotionally focused couple therapy (EFT-C) training with regard to reducing sexual dissatisfaction among couples. European Journal of Scientific Research, 43(4), 538-545.
9. MacIntosh, H.B. & Johnson, S. (2008) Emotionally focused therapy for couples and childhood sexual abuse survivors. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 34, 298-315.
10. Couture-Lalande, M.-E., Greenman, P.S., Naaman, S. & Johnson, S.M. (2007) Emotionally focused therapy (EFT) for couples with a female partner who suffers from breast cancer: an exploratory study. Psycho-Oncology, 1, 257â€“264. (Journal of the Psychological, Social and Behavioral Dimensions of Caner).
11. Couture-Lalande, M.-E., Greenman, P.S., Naaman, S. & Johnson, S.M. (2007) La therapie de couple
axe sur l'emotion (EFT) our traiter les couples donts la femme a le cancer du sein: une etude exploratoire. Psycho-Oncologie, 1, 1-8.
12. Makinen, J. A. & Johnson, S. (2006) Resolving Attachment Injuries in Couples using EFT: Steps Toward Forgiveness and Reconciliation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 74(6), 1055-1064.
13. Dessaulles, A., Johnson, S. M. & Denton, W. (2003) Emotion Focused Therapy for Couples in the Treatment of Depression: A Pilot Study. American Journal of Family Therapy, 31, 345-353.
14. Clothier, P., Manion, I., Gordon-Walker, J. & Johnson, S. M. (2002) Emotionally Focused Interventions for Couples with Chronically Ill Children: A two year follow-up. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 28, 391-399. Rev. 6 â€“ January 2013 Page 3 of 5
15. Denton, W., Burleson, B., Clark, T., Rodriguez, C. & Hobbs, B. (2000) A Randomized Trial of Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples in a Training Clinic. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 26, pp. 65-78.
16. Johnson, S., Hunsley, J., Greenberg, L. & Schindler, D. (1999) Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy: Status & challenges (A meta-analysis). Journal of Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 6, 67-79. NOTE: Also listed under Meta-Analyses
17. Johnson, S., Maddeaux, C. & Blouin, J. (1998) Emotionally Focused Family Therapy for Bulimia: Changing Attachment Patterns. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 35, 238-247.
18. Gordon-Walker, J., Johnson, S., Manion, I. & Cloutier, P. (1996) Emotionally Focused Marital Intervention for Couples with Chronically Ill Children. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 64, 1029-1036.
19. McPhee, D. & Johnson, S.M. (1995) Marital Therapy for Women with Low Sexual Desire. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 21, 159-182.
20. Dandeneau, M. & Johnson, S. (1994) Facilitating Intimacy: Interventions and Effects. Journal of Marital & Family Therapy, 20, 17-33.
21. Goldman, A. & Greenberg, L. (1992) Comparison of Integrated Systemic and Emotionally Focused Approaches to Couples Therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(6), 962-969.
22. James, P. (1991) Effects of a Communication Training Component Added to an Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy. Journal of Marital & Family Therapy, 17, 263-276.
23. Johnson, S. & Greenberg, L. (1985) Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy: An Outcome Study. Journal of Marital & Family Therapy, 11, 313-317.
24. Johnson, S. & Greenberg, L. (1985) The Differential Effectiveness of Experiential and Problem Solving Interventions in Resolving Marital Conflict. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 53, 175-184. (EFT, CBT and controls tested.)
Process & Predictors Research
1. Greenman, P., & Johnson, S. (In press). Summary article: â€śProcess Research in EFT for Couples: Linking Theory to Practiceâ€ť. In Family Process, Special Edition on Therapy Process Studies, edited by Jay Lebow.
2. Furrow, J.L., Edwards, S.A., Choi, Y., & Bradley, B. (2012) Therapist presence in emotionally focused couple therapy blamer softening events: promoting change through emotional experience. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Vol.38, Supplement s1, 39-49.
3. Wittenborn, A.K. (2012) Exploring the Influence of the Attachment Organizations of Novice Therapists on their Delivery of Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Vol.38, Supplement s1, 50-62.
4. Zuccarini, D.J., Johnson, S.M., Dalgleish, T. & Makinen, J. (In review) Forgiveness and reconciliation in EFT for couples: The client change process and therapist interventions. Journal of Marriage and Family Therapy.
5. Denton, W., Johnson, S. & Burleson, B. (2009) Emotion-Focused Therapy-Therapist Fidelity Scale (EFT-TFS): Conceptual Development and Content Validity. Journal of Couple and Relationship Therapy, 8, 226-246.
6. Bradley, B. & Furrow, J. L. (2004) Toward a Mini-theory of the Blamer Softening Event: Tracking the Moment-by-Moment Process. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 30(2), 233- 246.